Conditions Index

Alpha-1-antitrypsin is synthesised in the liver and intestinal cells and acts as a non-specific protease inhibitor in serum. It inhibits trypsin and other enzymes released by leukocytes and macrophages, thereby controlling inflammatory responses. An increase in the concentration of alpha-1-antitrypsin in faeces indicates increased permeability of the intestinal mucosa. The human gut has contradictory functions - it must be permeable to nutrients while also acting as a barrier to foreign antigens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and food. Molecules and antigenic structures are absorbed after passing through the mucosal layer via enterocytes and, in some cases, tight junctions. Inflammation of the mucosa, caused by conditions like celiac disease, food allergies, pollution, or malnutrition, can result in a loss of the natural barrier function, known as leaky gut syndrome. This leads to increased antigen confrontation and uptake by the gut-associated immune system, which can cause food allergies and further damage to the mucosa.

Symptoms & Conditions
  • Suspicion of enteral protein loss syndrome
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Intestinal infections
  • Coeliacs disease
  • Food allergies
  • Food intolerances
  • Disturbed intestinal flora
Aromatherapy resistance
Aromatherapy resistance test
Only in Combination with the Fungal screen (incl. Candida)

Aromatherapy oils, derived from plants, have various properties such as antiseptic, antibacterial, fungicidal and antiviral effects. The aromatogram, which is similar to an antibiotic resistance test, assesses the effectiveness of essential oils against fungal organisms isolated from a sample. Once the organism has been isolated and identified, an essential oil-soaked paper is placed on an agar plate. A zone of inhibition is formed around the paper, indicating efficacy. The size of this zone determines the efficacy of the oil. Oils such as Lemongrass, Palma Rosa, Tea Tree and others are tested, depending on the location and species.

This personalised therapy, guided by the most effective oils, targets specific fungal overgrowths identified in the patient. The aromatogram is only carried out if Candida spp. is detected, requiring a separate test for each strain. If no Candida spp. is detected the cost of this resistance test will be refunded.

Note: Can only be ordered by a therapist or practitioner.
The prevalence of obesity in our society has increased, particularly among children. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for developing diabetes, high blood pressure, and coronary heart disease. It is usually caused by multiple factors, including increased calorie intake, a sedentary lifestyle, stress, lack of sleep, insulin resistance induced by fat cells, low moods, reduced levels of the satiety hormone Leptin, and an imbalance in gut flora.

The Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (BFR) holds particular significance, as obese individuals often exhibit reduced Bacteroidetes and increased Firmicutes, potentially influencing their weight. Studies indicate that Firmicutes play a role in releasing enzymes that break down fibre and other less digestible foods. Further, the action of Firmicutes results in the conversion of the breakdown products into triglycerides for storage in fat cells. This alteration results in enhanced food utilization, leading to increased calorie intake and increased fat storage, even from fibre-rich sources like vegetables, transforming them into high-calorie options.

Clinical applications
  • Obesity
  • Insulin resistance
  • Failure to lose weight
Calprotectin is a protein, which binds to calcium and zinc from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) and also in lower concentration from monocytes and macrophages. Calprotectin in stool is a measurement for the extent of the granulocyte migration into the intestinal lumen, which is an indicator for the degree of the cellular inflammation process of the gut mucosa. Therefore, the test for Calprotectin is able to quantify the inflammation reaction in the stool. As well as that it can be used to monitor the success of an anti-inflammatory therapy.

Increased values in the stool indicate the inflammatory processes in the intestine, but with no indication for cause or location.

Clinical applications -Differentiation between IBD and IBS -Crohn’s disease, Colitis ulcerosa -Inflammatory bowel disease -Enteral carcinoma -Enteral virus infections -Enteral parasitosis
Clostridium-difficile toxin A
Clostridium difficile, an anaerobic bacterium, can cause severe diarrheal infections, especially in hospital settings, due to antibiotic use. Symptoms range from abdominal pain to life-threatening complications like pseudomembranous colitis.
Complete status of intestinal colonization
This is a screen for your beneficial bacteria, the most common pathogenic bacteria, candida, and all other yeasts and moulds, pH from a stool sample and a mouth swab.

The human intestine is colonized by many different species of bacteria (their number is a hundredfold higher than the number of human body cells). These intestinal bacteria vary considerably in their species and their function. Our beneficial gut bacteria have many important functions such as being part of the immune defence, anti-inflammatory action, helping with digestion, helping with nutrients, vitamin and mineral uptake, and are important for our oral tolerance and neurotransmitter balance in the gut. When we lack the healthy flora these benefits will be reduced or lost. A disturbed intestinal flora will give fungi and other pathogenic micro-organisms a much better chance to colonize the gut, to replicate and to unfold their harmful metabolism. Imbalanced gut flora either due to low beneficial bacteria or increased levels of pathogenic bacteria can cause many different symptoms.

Symptoms & conditions
  • frequent infections (Intestine, lungs, etc.)
  • heavy bloating
  • abdominal pain
  • problems after antibiotic treatment
  • headaches / migraines
  • joint pain
  • chronic fatigue
  • a weak immune system
  • allergies: eczema, hay fever, asthma
  • also, all listed under candida
Cortisol is produced in the adrenal cortex and is our main stress hormone. It is released in situations of mental and physical stress. Cortisol levels influence our protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism to provide us with optimal energy. It also alters mental reactivity and affects the immune system. Its metabolic function is mental wellbeing, immune function and growth regulation. It is produced in the second half of the night to be available in the morning for daily activities and steadily decreases throughout the day. In the evening and during the night, low levels of cortisol allow us to relax and fall asleep. In times of stress, cortisol levels are initially increased to meet the extra demands, but if the stress continues for a long time, the body cannot maintain this. Levels will start to fall; the first signs are often a drop in levels around mid-morning. As the situation worsens, the cortisol curve continues to flatten and evening levels rise slightly, leading to sleep disturbances. This makes the situation progressively worse, leading to adrenal fatigue. As a result of adrenal fatigue, the pre-hormones progesterone and DHEA are also reduced. DHEA is an important counterpart to cortisol and important for stress tolerance. This means that all the positive properties of the two hormones disappear, and the androgen and oestrogen hormones produced from them are also reduced.

  • Eczema
  • Psoriasis
  • Hay fever
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Adrenal exhaustion
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Other conditions
DHEA, a precursor and antagonist of cortisol, affects the immune system, acts as an anti-inflammatory, and demonstrates antioxidant properties. Deviations in levels often indicate adrenal issues. During prolonged stress, DHEA production initially increases to support cortisol precursors; with prolonged stress, DHEA levels decrease as the body struggles to meet demand. It is also a precursor for testosterone, estradiol, and estriol, influencing these hormones. In men, low DHEA can lead to reduced testosterone, affecting libido and prostate health, while high DHEA may cause elevated testosterone and estrogen, resulting in symptoms like aggression, increased muscle power, facial hair growth, baldness, and acne. Other reasons for an increase can be over-supplementation and heavy exercise. As part of the PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) hormone cascade in women, high DHEA levels are also an important consideration.
Eosinophil protein X (EPX)

EPX is catatonic glycoprotein, which is released from activated Eosinophil granulocytes during antigen/ antibody reactions. EPX is also called EDN (eosinophil derivated neurotoxin) in some publications. EPX is used to diagnose the presence of true allergies or to examine the success of elimination diets. With this we can distinguish between true allergies and intolerances. Classically the diagnosis for allergies has been done by allergen specific IgE antibody test and pin prick test. These have only a limited value, for the diagnosis of Food allergies. Normal IgE level and negative pin prick test don’t exclude an intestinal food allergy.

Clinical applications
  •  Differentiation between true food allergies and food intolerances
  • Intestinal Inflammation
  • Intestinal parasitosis
Estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, plays a crucial role in male and female hormone metabolism. Through the Hypothalamus pituitary gland axis (HPA), estrogen influences the levels of other hormones such as sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), reduces the availability of free/active testosterone and the secretion of Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH).

It is produced in the ovaries, breast tissue, adrenal glands, testes and adipose tissue. In women, estrogens follow a monthly rhythm, contribute to development in the female body (development of the uterine lining, pregnancy and breast development), regulate the menstrual cycle, but also influence sexual arousal and modulate libido. In men, they affect fertility, erectile function, and sperm maturation and potency. In both sexes it also affects various physiological processes such as bone density, hair and nail growth, thickens the bile, loosens connective tissue, water retention, blood clotting, releases histamine (which promotes allergies) and affects mood.

Hormonal balance: In men, requires a balanced ratio of testosterone to estradiol, otherwise leads to oestrogen dominance associated with weight gain and feminisation. In women , however, a balanced ratio of progesterone to estradiol is required, otherwise oestrogen dominance will occur, which is associated with weight gain, PMS or menopausal symptoms. Therefore, we recommend always measuring in combination with either progesterone (female) or testosterone (male).
Estriol, derived from estrogen stores in the liver, plays an important role in maintaining the health and moisture of mucous membranes throughout the body, especially in the uterus, vulva, and bladder. Although its estrogenic effect is less than that of estradiol, it has a significant effect on bladder function.

During pregnancy, Estriol levels naturally rise, supporting uterine and foetal health, reaching peak levels before childbirth to prepare the body for labor, delivery, and breastfeeding. Known as the "mucous membrane hormone," Estriol alleviates issues like irritable bladder, spontaneous urine release, hot flashes, and vaginal dryness. Its cell growth non-stimulatory property deems it suitable for women post-breast cancer.
Fructose intolerance
Fructose also called malabsorption, is prevalent among adults. Fructose malabsorption are sugar utilisation disorders that hinder proper digestion an often occur at the same time. This results in excess sugars being available for gut bacteria, causing bloating. Moreover, the excess sugar can draw water into the bowel, leading to diarrhoea. The severity of symptoms correlates with the amount of sugar consumed. It occurs when the transport protein GLUT-5 is less active, causing incomplete fructose absorption in the small intestine. This creates high levels of fructose in the gut, which forms complexes with tryptophan. Consequently, less tryptophan is released into the blood and subsequently into the brain. Identifying fructose intolerance helps maintain a physiological balance of tryptophan and its positive effects on irritable bowel syndrome. Primary lactose intolerance can be genetically confirmed, while secondary lactose intolerance can be identified through a simple self-test. Carbohydrate intolerance is often linked to intestinal dysbiosis, warranting analysis of the intestinal flora. Additionally, measuring calprotectin is recommended to rule out intestinal inflammation.
GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, plays a crucial role in alleviating irritable bowel pain through the gut-brain axis. Produced by intestinal bacteria, GABA regulates anxiety, stress, circadian rhythm, and sleep, impacting pain perception. It inhibits the transmission of pain signals from the intestine to the brain and activates nociceptor suppression in the enteric nervous system. However, GABA's analgesic effect is dependent on optimal pH levels between 5.3 and 6.2, emphasizing the importance of maintaining an acidic intestinal pH for effective relief of irritable bowel pain. 
Gliadin antibodies
The Gliadin induced disorder differs from true coeliac disease (CD) in several ways. Unlike CD, no autoantibodies are produced during the immune response. Instead, gliadin antibodies are formed because of the body’s immune response in the gut against gluten (gliadin). This occurs in both true coeliac diseases, but also in the clinical picture of gluten sensitivity/intolerance. However, the damage to the small intestine wall is not as severe as it is in coeliac disease.

Clinical application
  • Bloating
  • Coeliac disease
  • Food intolerance
  • Gluten intolerance
  • Weight loss unexplained
  • Constipation chronic
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting & nausea
  • Diarrhoea, chronic
  • Headaches reoccurring
  • Bone and joint pains
  • IBS (optional)
  • Mood disorders
  • Eczema or rash
Helicobacter pylori
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium which lives in the stomach, and it thrives despite the acidic environment. It settles in the mucous tissue of the stomach and leads to inflammation of all parts of the stomach. It causes 80-90% of all forms of gastritis and is the most common cause of stomach and duodenal ulcers worldwide. Its toxic metabolic end products damage the stomach lining up to a degree of necrosis. An H. pylori infection is most likely acquired by ingesting contaminated food and water or through person to person contact. The bacterium can be detected with an antigen test. The sensitivity of this test can be compared with the breath test. It has a sensitivity of about 94% (Z. Gastroenterol 1999, 37. 1145-1149). This stool test can be used to diagnose an infection with H. pylori as well as the success of a treatment.

Symptoms & Conditions

This test may be applicable for patients who present the following symptoms
  • Bad breath
  • Gastritis
  • Heart burn
  • Burping or acid regurgitation
  • chronic stomach pains
  • Histamine intolerance
  • Urticaria (raised itchy skin rash)
  • Rash
Histamine, a key regulator of bodily functions, can lead to adverse effects, including allergies and intolerance, particularly for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), histamine intolerance (HIT), allergy, asthma, and hay fever. In IBS, histamine exacerbates symptoms, influencing enteral nerves, stress, sleep disorders, and inflammation. Elevated histamine levels in the gut result from various sources, including certain foods, medications, bacteria, and mast cell degranulation, often triggered by mechanical stimuli like bloating. <br/><br/>Diamine oxidase (DAO) breaks down histamine in various organs, but factors like inflammatory bowel disease, alcohol, drugs, and painkillers can inhibit it, causing histamine-related issues. HIT, often due to DAO deficiency or imbalance, manifests with symptoms like headaches, tachycardia, gastrointestinal problems, hypotension, and joint pain, affecting approximately 1% of the population. There's also a hormonal link between elevated estrogen levels and histamine release.Symptoms and conditions
  • Diarrhea
  • Cramps
  • Irritation
  • Itchiness
  • Inflammation
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Tachycardia
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Oestrogen dominance
IBS panel
For a long time, irritable bowel syndrome was only associated with a bowel problem. But new research has shown that it is also a disorder of the gut-brain axis. We are all familiar with the gut-brain connection: when we are very upset or anxious, we feel nauseous and have a queasy feeling in our stomach. This is often heightened in people with IBS. The gut and brain communicate through the gut-brain axis via microbiota, hormones, neurotransmitters and sensory neurons. Our IBS panel tests for 4 of these messengers (histamine, tryptophan, serotonin and GABA). The levels of these substances in the stool give us valuable information on how to treat the complex picture of IBS. As IBS is a multifactorial disease, it is also useful to rule out dysbiosis, candida overgrowth, parasites, true food allergies and leaky gut. These are often contributing factors in IBS.

Symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome include:
  • Pain
  • Bloating
  • Cramping
  • Bowel motility problems (diarrhoea and/or constipation)
  • Increased urgency of bowel movements
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Visceral hypersensitivity to pain
  • Sleep disturbances
Intestinal bleeding
Haemoglobin-haptoglobin complex: marker for intestinal bleeding

Bowel cancer, affecting the large bowel or rectum, presents a significant health concern in Ireland. The 2023 National Cancer Registry reports 2,560 annual diagnoses. Fatty, low-fibre diets are linked to cancer development, necessitating improved screening. Intestinal bleeding is the most common symptom for colon rectal cancer. Immunological stool tests for the Haemoglobin-haptoglobin complex (HHC) are highly sensitive and human-specific, improving accuracy. Recent research highlights slowed haemoglobin breakdown during intestinal bleeding, increasing sensitivity to right-sided colon cancers. 

The test identifies colorectal cancers and polyps, with 77% sensitivity for carcinomas and 80% for large adenomas. Since colon cancer typically develops from benign polyps over years, this test facilitates early detection, especially of larger polyps. Combining it with tumor M2-PK enhances diagnostic capabilities, enabling timely intervention through colonoscopy for a positive outcome.
Lactose intolerance
Lactose intolerance results from the inability to properly digest lactose, the sugar in milk, due to insufficient lactase enzyme. Lactose, a vital carbohydrate, varies in concentration between different types of mammalian milk. Important for infant nutrition, it supports gut flora development and optimal calcium utilization. Beyond natural sources, lactose is extensively used in the food industry for various products and medications. Lactase deficiency, a prevalent global enzyme deficiency, shows a North-South gradient. Primary lactase deficiency is hereditary and prevalent in South-East Asia, Central Africa, and the Mediterranean. Secondary lactase deficiency can arise from bacterial dysbiosis, overgrowth syndrome, Celiac disease, other acute or chronic inflammatory diseases and diarrhea.

Symptoms include digestive issues and non-specific complaints. This test is a gene test revealing genetic predisposition to primary lactose intolerance. For secondary lactose intolerance see Calprotectin, Complete status, tissue transglutaminase, pathogenic flora.
Increased Lysozyme is produced by neutrophile granulocytes and monocytes as part of the nonspecific Immune defence of our body. Lysozyme attack the cell wall membranes of gram positive bacteria and therefore kills them off. They carry out this function in the saliva, tears and in the gut. During an acute or chronic inflammation, the immune defence is activated, and the production of lysozyme is increased. Therefore, more Lysozyme enters the gut lumen and can be detected in the stool. The indications are the same as that of the calprotectin. Since the lysozyme is produced during either the neutrophiles or granulocytes inflammation cascade, it is more often positive than calprotectin.

Clinical applications
  • Differentiation between IBD and IBS
  • Crohn’s disease, Colitis ulcerosa
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Enteral carcinoma
  • Enteral virus infections
  • Enteral parasitosis
Melatonin, produced in the pineal gland, plays a crucial role in regulating the circadian rhythm and is influenced by the light-dark cycle. It peaks around three hours after midnight, promoting sleep. Seasonal variations can impact melatonin levels, potentially causing sleep disorders and winter depression. Disruptions, such as those from shift work or age-related changes, can affect this system. Melatonin is also linked to good memory function. Most commonly we see chronic stress leading to elevated cortisol levels at night, but also with inconsistent sleep patterns. High night-time values can be associated with sleeping problems (poor quality of sleep and lack of sufficient sleep), fatigue and low moods. When the situation continues, it will start to reduce your immunity and lead to chronic inflammation and weight gain. Measuring melatonin levels at night, preferably in saliva collected immediately upon waking, provides insights into sleep factors, complemented by assessing cortisol levels from the same sample.
Muconutritive flora
Muconutritive flora (Akkermansia muciniphilia and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) are a marker for the health of the gut mucosa. The gut mucosa is the lining of the intestinal wall, which is a barrier between the lumen of the gut (Outside) and our body (Inside). Intestinal flora, intestinal mucosa health and the mucus thickness all play an important role in chronic diseases such as: obesity, type 2 diabetes, leaky gut syndrome, autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, dementia, autism, Parkinson disease and anxiety. F. prausnitzii lives mainly on the surface of the Mucosa and its metabolic end products the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs :butyric acid, lactic acid and formic acid) have a central role as it is the main energy source for the cells of the gut wall (epithelia cells) and to maintain the gut wall integrity (tight junctions). Further end products of F. Prausnitzii have an anti-inflammatory effect and regulate a balanced immune answer between reaction to pathogenic bacteria causing infection versus tolerance to commensal bacteria and food antigens. Whereas A. muciniphila is mainly found inside the mucus layer of the mucosa. This bacterium has several important functions: It breaks down the mucin of the mucus layer, which turns into food for F. Prausnitzii, stimulates new mucus production, thereby maintain a healthy mucus layer and supplies nutrients to the epithelial cells.

Symptoms & Conditions
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Leaky gut syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Insulin resistance
  • Colitis ulcerosa
  • IBS (optional)
Mycology (Fungal screen): Investigation for all yeasts and moulds (qualitative and semi quantitative) incl. Candida & quantities of yeast in mouth

This is a screen for candida, and all other yeasts and moulds, plus pH from a stool sample and a mouth swab. Candida albicans is the most commonly detected yeast, yet there are many more species like Candida parapsilosis, tropicalis, glabrata, krusei, Geotrichum (milk mould) or others. Sometimes symptoms can also be caused by moulds like Aspergillus niger, Mucor etc.

It is essential therefore to know which of these many possibilities is the cause of the problem, and the location in the gut or the mouth. That is why an accurate analysis is needed before an effective treatment can begin.

Symptoms & condiditons
  • frequent infections (Intestine, lungs, etc.)
  • heavy bloating, especially after eating
  • diarrhoea or constipation (frequently these alternate)
  • Skin problems
  • problems after antibiotic treatment
  • nausea and acid regurgitation
  • extreme tiredness  and lethargy,
  • sweet craving
  • depression, allergies, recurrent colds, eczema, palpitations
  • recurrent vaginal thrush, recurrent cystitis and more
Pancreas elastase
Elastase is a digestive enzyme released by the pancreas and has a direct correlation to the exocrine pancreas function. It is a marker for exocrine pancreatic under function or insufficiency. This reduces the production of the digestive enzymes and therefore food cannot be digested properly and leads to malabsorption and malnutrition. The result can be upper abdominal pain, weight loss or food intolerance, all of which mimic food allergies. This is why chronic pancreatitis is often misdiagnosed for years. The faecal elastase levels reached in infants of only one month are already comparable to the normal levels in adults. The test has a high sensitivity and specificity. Daily variations are insignificant, and the fecal elastase is very stable.

Clinical applications
  • Bloating (heavy), especially shortly after eating
  • diarrhoea or constipation
  • Diarrhoea, chronic
  • Floating stools
  • Greasy pale stools
  • Pancreas insufficiency
  • Weight loss unexplained
  • upper abdominal pain
  • suspicion of food allergies
Parasites are a truly diverse group of pathogens ranging from microscopic size to large worms which can be seen with the unaided eye. Many have different life stages, which are sometimes outside the gut and/or are intermittently released. Therefore, detection can be difficult. A first indication of parasitosis is a pronounced blood eosinophilia or increased EPX values ??in the stool.

If there are still unclear intestinal or general symptoms, the possibility of a parasitosis should always be considered and analysed in the laboratory. Travellers returning from a trip in areas with less hygiene standards represent an important risk group for parasitosis. Other risk groups include people with close contact to pets or livestock, sewage contaminated water or immunodeficient patients (AIDS patients, tumour patients after chemotherapy). Children are affected by parasites more frequently than adults because their immune systems are not yet fully developed, and they may still not be as aware of all hygiene rules.

  • frequent infections (Intestine, lungs, etc.)
  • persistent diarrhoea or alternating diarrhoea and constipation
  • attacks of sweating or feeling cold
  • fever
  • nausea and vomiting
  • colic like pains
  • hunger attacks which alternate with times of no appetite
  • persistent cough
  • weight loss
  • anal itching
  • anaemia
  • symptoms following foreign travel
Pathogenic species
SalmonellaSalmonella, globally prevalent and related to Escherichia coli, causes diseases in humans and animals. Salmonellosis, a zoonotic infection, can be transmitted between humans and animals, and also through contaminated food. Salmonella leads to mainly self-resolving diarrheal illnesses in humans. However, vulnerable groups may experience severe complications. Under cooked foods like meat, eggs, and dairy products are common carriers.

ShigellaShigella, comprising four species, causes bacillary dysentery transmitted through water and food. Invasive and capable of causing abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea, Shigella infections typically resolve within a week. However, complications like reactive arthritis or the Reiter syndrome can follow.Reporting: Shigella detection is a notifiable disease in Ireland

YersiniaYersinia, prevalent worldwide, includes human pathogens like Y. enterocolitica, commonly transmitted through contaminated food, especially raw pork. Infections vary in symptoms, affecting different age groups. Complications range from acute gastroenteritis to conditions resembling Crohn's disease.

CampylobacterCampylobacter, slender, spiral-shaped bacteria, mainly C. jejuni and C. coli, are significant causes of human diarrhea worldwide, often transmitted through contaminated food, particularly raw meat or raw milk. Infections lead to symptoms like fever, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea, with potential complications like reactive arthritis.

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)EHEC strains of Escherichia coli can cause severe bloody diarrhea in humans. With various pathogenic factors, EHEC infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Infections often originate from animals, with contaminated food as a common transmission route.
Enterobius vermicularis: Human pinworm, also known as threadworm or seatwork. The pinworm lives in the lower part of the small intestine, and the upper part of the colon. It is one of the most widespread human intestinal parasites Which is best detected with a sticky tape test from the skin around the anus. The clear see-through tape is attached to a glass slide for microscopic analysis looking for eggs and female pinworms.

  • Particular around the anus (and the vagina in girls), during the night or the early hours of the morning.
  • It is frequent in children and people living or working with children
  • Itching or crawling sensations around the anus
  • Sleep disturbance
  • In young girls with irritated or itchy vagina
  • In some case, you may see the worms on bed clothes, sheets, or in their stool.
  • These worms look like threads of white cotton and are about 1 centimetre long
  • Some patients are symptom free
Progesterone has diuretic, antihypertensive, analgesic and antithrombotic effects. It has a calming effect on the central nervous system, stabilises copper and zinc metabolism, increases libido, stimulates hair and nail growth, protects nerves, cornea and vitreous body, promotes bone mass and collagen regeneration. Produced in the testes/ovaries and adrenal glands, it's a precursor to cortisol, testosterone and oestrogen. A synergist and antagonist of these hormones, it is essential for prostate health and influences emotional balance, concentration and sleep. Progesterone inhibits the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, which is associated with hair loss and prostate enlargement. It also slows down estrogen-induced cell growth, providing protection against cancer. In women, progesterone follows a monthly rhythm that is crucial for ovarian hormone activity, with deviations indicating menstrual irregularities, fertility issues or hypogonadism.
Serotonin levels in the intestine influence peristalsis and pain sensation. Altered serotonin levels can lead to diarrhea or constipation and a quick change between them in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Sensitization and desensitization of enteric nerves may contribute to the mixed type of irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin levels can be affected due to genetic or environmental factors, but more often due to environmental factors e.g. dysbiosis, diet, supplementation, drugs and toxins
Secretory IgA in the stool (Marker for Gut Immunity)

Secretory IgA (sIgA) in the intestines plays a crucial role in the human immune system, particularly in the mucosal immune defence. SIgA binds to antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins, preventing them from attaching to and invading the mucosal surfaces of the intestines. Once bound to antigens, sIgA immobilizes and neutralizes them, rendering them harmless. This process helps prevent the entry of pathogens into the body. Further sIgA provides a first line of defence against infections, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. Newborns receive sIgA through breast milk, offering protection against gastrointestinal infections. sIgA helps regulate the immune response in the mucosal tissues, ensuring a balanced and appropriate reaction to antigens. This is important for preventing unnecessary inflammation and immune overactivity. The concentration of sIgA in the intestines serves as an indicator of the local immune defence. Low levels may suggest a weakened immune response, while elevated levels could indicate an overactive immune system or localized inflammation, including conditions like food allergies. In summary, intestinal sIgA is a key component of the immune system, contributing to the defence against pathogens and maintaining the balance of the immune response in the mucosal surfaces of the digestive tract.

Clinical applications
  • Frequent infections (Intestine, lungs, etc.)
  • Immune suppressed states
  • Frequent infections though pathogens such as Candia, virus or parasites
  • Intestinal inflammation
  • Allergies

Streptococcus and Staphylococcus
Streptococcus and Staphylococcus are part of our normal commensal flora of the skin and the Intestine. But belonging to these groups are also important pathogen such as the beta-haemolytic Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus which can cause inflammation. S. aureus produces enterotoxin, which can cause diarrhea and vomiting. While the beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, however they also can enter the gut via swallowing during inflammatory processes of the ENT (ear, nose and throat). Further in children, high numbers of S. aureus were associated with atopic dermatitis.

Clinical applications
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Colitis ulcerosa
  • Diarrhea
  • Atopic dermatitis in children
Testosterone, the most important male sex hormone, is vital for the development of the male body and reproductive organs. In men, it exhibits a distinct morning peak before wake-up time, declining throughout the day. Responsible for muscle power, libido, and overall well-being, it also influences fat metabolism, brain function, and the production of essential substances.

In women, ovaries and adrenal glands produce small amounts, impacting fertility, libido, menstrual balance, and physical appearance. Elevated levels in women may result in conditions like PCOS, irregular cycles, increased hair growth, male pattern baldness and mood changes. Conversely, low testosterone levels are linked to low libido, weight gain, and fatigue.
Tissue transglutaminase
Coeliac disease (CD) is sometimes referred to as gluten intolerance, but it is actually a chronic autoimmune disease of the small intestine caused by an abnormal reaction to the enzyme complex tissue-transglutaminase. This enzyme helps with the breakdown of gluten in our body but when the immune system overreacts and attacks it, the result is inflammation which leads to atrophy/damage of the gut wall. This leads to malabsorption of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, anaemia, tiredness, bloating, diarrhoea, osteoporosis and many other problems. In children it also can cause stunted growth. Gluten is found in wheat, spelt, barley, rye and in lesser amounts in oats. The only effective treatment is a lifelong gluten free diet, which can help most patients to become symptoms free, although some may only experience a reduction in symptoms. However, the damage will re-occur if gluten is re-introduced into the diet.

Clinical applications
  • Bloating
  • Coeliac disease
  • Food intolerance
  • Gluten intolerance
  • Weight loss unexplained
  • Constipation chronic
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting & nausea
  • Diarrhoea, chronic (optional)
  • IBS (optional)
  • Family history of Coeliac ds
  • Itchy skin
  • Headaches reoccurring
  • Bone of joint pains
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Seizures
  • Iron or vit b 12 deficiency
  • Recurring miscarriage
  • Low birth weight
  • Stunted growth in children
Tryptophan, a vital amino acid, plays a crucial role in supporting a healthy intestinal barrier, exhibiting anti-inflammatory effects, enhancing mental health, and improving sleep quality. Derived mainly from dietary protein, it contributes to the production of proteins that fortify the intestinal barrier. Tryptophan also activates the mTOR signalling system, promoting regeneration and repair of the intestinal epithelium. In the large intestine, it generates anti-inflammatory indole compounds and kynurenic acid, known for its antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Tryptophan is essential for serotonin synthesis, vital for mood regulation, and contributes to melatonin production, improving sleep quality. While dietary sources provide most tryptophan, certain bacteria and probiotics can enhance its availability. Fructose malabsorption can impact tryptophan absorption, emphasizing the importance of addressing such conditions for maintaining a healthy tryptophan balance in the body.Indications:
  • Reduced tissue regeneration
  • Immune dysregulation
  • Inhibited protein syntheses
  • Reduced beta defensin levels
  • Pathogenic colonisation (Candida, Pseudomonas)
  • High Environmental toxins exposure
  • High Sugar consumption
Tumour Marker: Tumour-M2-PK in stool.

Bowel cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer in both men and women in Ireland, with an average of 1,012 deaths per year or 9.7% of cancer deaths in women and 11.2% of cancer deaths in men. Bowel cancer affects about 1 in 20 people. It is more common in people over the age of 60. Early detection makes it much more treatable, and surgery is successful in about 45% of cases.

Family history, genetic factors and conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease can increase the risk. Over 90% of bowel tumours arise from polyps found incidentally during a colonoscopy. Warning signs include rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, tiredness and weight loss. Screening for people over 50 or at increased risk has traditionally involved sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, with concerns about patient reluctance. The ELISA test detects antibodies to tumour M2 pyruvate kinase with 100% sensitivity and 72.5% specificity for colorectal cancer. Unlike other tests, it requires no dietary precautions, and a single stool sample is sufficient, providing a simpler and more reliable screening option, including the detection of none bleeding tumours.
Zonulin (gut wall permeability) is a regulator protein which is involved in the regulation of the tight junctions. Through these tight junctions the transport between the gut lumen and the body is controlled. Zonulin binds to specific receptors on the gut wall, the tight junctions are opened and increase the gut wall permeability. Certain triggers such as gliadin (gluten protein), certain bacteria, missing mucosa thickness or missing muconutritive flora can lead to increased zonulin release, which leads to increased permeability. The increased influx of the foreign antigen and cell particles into the body can cause an immunological reaction and mis regulations in the body.

Clinical applications
  • Diabetes type 1
  • Auto immune ds
  • Coeliacs disease
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Other chronic ds
β-Defensin a part of the innate immune system, is produced in the gut wall's mucus membrane, serving as a potent antimicrobial peptide. Even Micro molar concentrations effectively combat bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. Further, β-Defensin, along with sIgA, plays a crucial part in maintaining colonization resistance in gut mucosa against pathogenic species and toxin, contributing to immune tolerance and mucosa barrier integrity. Low levels signal reduced colonisations resistance and leaky gut syndrome, while elevated levels indicate inflammation; colitis ulcerosa sufferers typically display normal β-Defensin levels. While in Crohn’s disease levels are low during active and remission phase.

Clinical applications
  • Suspicion of leaky gut syndrome
  • Local inflammation
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Low immunity
  • Disturbed intestinal flora